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In our book Unfit for the Future and a number of papers, we have argued that there is a dangerous mismatch between, on the one hand, the tremendous power of scientific technology, which has created societies with millions of citizens, and, on the other hand, our moral capacities, which have been shaped by evolution for life in small, close-knit societies with primitive technology. To overcome this mismatch before it results in the downfall of human civilization, human beings stand in acute need of moral enhancement, not only by traditional means but also by biomedical means, should this turn out to be possible. After summarizing this argument, we respond to two critics, Michael Hauskeller and Robert Sparrow.

Original publication




Journal article


Camb Q Healthc Ethics

Publication Date





48 - 57


Biomedical Enhancement, Bioterrorism, Evidence-Based Medicine, Human Characteristics, Humans, Industrial Development, Morals, Motivation, Nuclear Weapons, Personality, Social Values