Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Over 90% of deaths attributable to malaria are in African children under 5 years old. Yet, new treatments are often tested primarily in adult patients and extrapolations have proven to be sometimes invalid, especially in dosing regimens. For studies in severe malaria an additional complication is that the decline in severe malaria in adult patients precludes sufficiently powered trials in adults, before the intervention can be tested in the ultimate target group, paediatric severe malaria. In this paper we propose an alternative pathway to the development of drugs for use in paediatric severe malaria. We argue that following the classical phase I and II studies, small safety and efficacy studies using well-chosen surrogate endpoints in adult severe malaria be conducted, instead of larger mortality endpoint trials. If the drug appears safe and promising small pilot studies in paediatric severe malaria using the same endpoints can follow. Finally, with carefully observed safeguards in place to ensure high ethical standards, promising candidate interventions can be taken forward into mortality endpoint, well-powered, large paediatric studies in African children with severe malaria. Given the available research capacity, limited numbers of prudently selected interventions can be studied in phase III trials, and adaptive designs should be considered.


Journal article


International health

Publication Date





313 - 316


Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, 420/6 Rajvithi Rd, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK The Ethox Centre, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK